Corticosteroids in acute asthma exacerbation

A search that yielded 229 references identified 169 (73%) original publications. Reviewers identified 8 studies for potential inclusion (k =); 18 references were added by searching publication reference lists and contact with authors. Of these 26 articles, a total of 7 were included in the overview. Two studies used intramuscular corticosteroids, five studies used oral corticosteroids. Significantly fewer patients in the corticosteroid group relapsed to receive additional care in the first week (odds ratio (OR) ; 95% confidence interval (CI): , ). This favourable effect was maintained over the first 21 days (OR ; 95% CI: , ). Patients receiving corticosteroids had less need for beta-agonists (weighted mean difference (WMD) - activations/day; 95% CI: -, -). Changes in pulmonary function tests (SMD ; 95% CI: -, ) and side effects (SMD ; 95% CI : -, ) in the first 7-10 days, while rarely reported, showed no differences between the treatment groups. Statistically significant heterogeneity was identified for the side effect results; all other outcomes were homogeneous. It appears that IM corticosteroids are similarly efficacious to a 7-10 day tapering course of oral agents. From these results, as few as 13 patients need to be treated to prevent relapse to additional care after an exacerbation of asthma.

Oral corticosteroids, including prednisolone or prednisone, are powerful anti-inflammatory medications. They have some benefit for reducing pain in the first 2 weeks or so of an attack, when used with acyclovir or another nucleoside analogue. (They are not recommended without a nucleoside analogue.) They also may be helpful for improving symptoms of Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Corticosteroids do not appear to prevent a further shingles attack or reduce the risk for PHN. Side effects of corticosteroids can be severe, and patients should take oral steroids at as low a dose, and for as short a time, as possible. (Injected or intravenous steroids, however, may offer specific relief for PHN without significant side effects.)

Certain drugs such as troleandomycin (TAO), erythromycin ( Ery-Tab , EryPed 200), and clarithromycin ( Biaxin ) and ketoconazole ( Nizoral ) can reduce the ability of the liver to metabolize (breakdown) corticosteroids and this may lead to an increase in the levels and side effects of corticosteroids in the body. On the other hand, phenobarbital, ephedrine , phenytoin ( Dilantin ), and rifampin ( Rifadin , Rimactane ) may reduce the blood levels of corticosteroids by increasing the breakdown of corticosteroids by the liver. This may necessitate an increase of corticosteroid dose when they are used in combination with these drugs.

Oral and injectable systemic corticosterois are steroid hormones prescribed to decrease inflammation in diseases and conditions such as arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, for example), ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, asthma, bronchitis, some skin rashes, and allergic or inflammatory conditions that involve the nose and eyes. Examples of systemic corticosteroids include hydrocortisone (Cortef), cortisone, prednisone (Prednisone Intensol), prednisolone (Orapred, Prelone), and methylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol). Some of the side effects of systemic corticosteroids are swelling of the legs, hypertension, headache, easy bruising, facial hair growth, diabetes, cataracts, and puffiness of the face.

Corticosteroids in acute asthma exacerbation

corticosteroids in acute asthma exacerbation

Oral and injectable systemic corticosterois are steroid hormones prescribed to decrease inflammation in diseases and conditions such as arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, for example), ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, asthma, bronchitis, some skin rashes, and allergic or inflammatory conditions that involve the nose and eyes. Examples of systemic corticosteroids include hydrocortisone (Cortef), cortisone, prednisone (Prednisone Intensol), prednisolone (Orapred, Prelone), and methylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol). Some of the side effects of systemic corticosteroids are swelling of the legs, hypertension, headache, easy bruising, facial hair growth, diabetes, cataracts, and puffiness of the face.

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