Physical exercise can be an important adjunct in the treatment of both non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Over the past several years, considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis for these clinically important effects of physical exercise. Similarly to insulin, a single bout of exercise increases the rate of glucose uptake into the contracting skeletal muscles, a process that is regulated by the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane and transverse tubules. Exercise and insulin utilize different signaling pathways, both of which lead to the activation of glucose transport, which perhaps explains why humans with insulin resistance can increase muscle glucose transport in response to an acute bout of exercise. Exercise training in humans results in numerous beneficial adaptations in skeletal muscles, including an increase in GLUT4 expression. The increase in muscle GLUT4 in trained individuals contributes to an increase in the responsiveness of muscle glucose uptake to insulin, although not all studies show that exercise training in patients with diabetes improves overall glucose control. However, there is now extensive epidemiological evidence demonstrating that long-term regular physical exercise can significantly reduce the risk of developing non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
[…] HERE Broenfeld pretty much owns John Ivy, a highly-respected researcher in the area of nutrient timing (he actually wrote the book on nutrient timing – literally!). I’m disappointed that John hasn’t yet responded – it makes him lose points in my book. Either step up to the challenge John, or change your views. By the way, I read the book Nutrient Timing when it first came out in 2004, but I’ve since updated my views due to Alagon and Broenfeld’s reviews of the research. It is quite clear that the importance of the “anabolic window” for the common lifter is grossly exaggerated. […]
Areta’s 2013 study is perhaps the most interesting of the bunch. This international team was one of the first to look at our question in the manner of the above table. They tested the difference between two large, 40-gram doses taken immediately post-workout and shortly afterwards, and ranges of smaller doses that in total were equal to the two large doses. The team’s results showed that regular 20-gram doses of protein taken every three hours were most effective. Coupled with other studies, and it’s like the Kool-Aid Man walked through the anabolic window and left behind a gaping hole. (Areta’s work also helped launch a thousand “pulse” feeding programs.)