alpha-Latrotoxin is a presynaptic neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the black widow spider Latrodectus tredecimguttatus. It exerts toxic effects in the vertebrate central nervous system by depolarizing neurons, by increasing [Ca2+]i and by stimulating uncontrolled exocytosis of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals. The actions of alpha-latrotoxin are mediated, in part, by a GTP-binding protein-coupled receptor referred to as CIRL or latrophilin. Exendin-4 is also a venom toxin, and it is derived from the salivary gland of the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. It acts as an agonist at the receptor for glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)-amide (GLP-1), thereby stimulating secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans. Here is reported a surprising structural homology between alpha-latrotoxin and exendin-4 that is also apparent amongst all members of the GLP-1-like family of secretagogic hormones (GLP-1, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, secretin, pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide). On the basis of this homology, we report the synthesis and initial characterization of a chimeric peptide (Black Widow GLP-1) that stimulates Ca2+ signaling and insulin secretion in human beta-cells and MIN6 insulinoma cells. It is also reported here that the GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors for alpha-latrotoxin and exendin-4 share highly significant structural similarity in their extracellularly-oriented amino-termini. We propose that molecular mimicry has generated conserved structural motifs in secretagogic toxins and their receptors, thereby explaining the evolution of defense or predatory strategies that are shared in common amongst distantly related species including spiders, lizards, and snakes. Evidently, the toxic effects of alpha-latrotoxin and exendin-4 are explained by their ability to interact with GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors that normally mediate the actions of endogenous hormones or neuropeptides.
I took Leptiburn from January 2014-April 2014. I went from 177 pounds to 150 pounds. I took two pills twice a day, and made sure to eat within 30 minutes after doing so. I also followed, very specifically, the diet calendar that was suggested. It was not easy to do, but for any diet plan to work, it is imperative to have the will power to change your diet. There is never going to be a pill out there that you can take with out making healthier choices in either dieting or exercise. The pills are a booster and a booster only, if you keep eating like crazy or do not exercise they aren’t going to work, no pill will. I had zero side affects and I have suggested both the diet plan and the Leptiburn pills to many people. I give it 4 stars instead of 5, for the simple fact I don’t want anyone getting the idea that this pill will be a lazy way for someone to lose weight, because that’s not how it works. I also used the my fitness pal app to help me track my calorie intake every day.
How might behaviors affect hormones? The birdsong example demonstrates how hormones can affect behavior, but as noted, the reciprocal relation also occurs; that is, behavior can affect hormone concentrations. For example, the sight of a territorial intruder may elevate blood testosterone concentrations in resident male birds and thereby stimulate singing or fighting behavior. Similarly, male mice or rhesus monkeys that lose a fight decrease circulating testosterone concentrations for several days or even weeks afterward. Comparable results have also been reported in humans. Testosterone concentrations are affected not only in humans involved in physical combat, but also in those involved in simulated battles. For example, testosterone concentrations were elevated in winners and reduced in losers of regional chess tournaments.