Lymphedema (pronounced LIMF-eh-DEE-ma) is a condition that can happen after breast cancer surgery. Research has shown that between 5% and 25% of women develop some lymphedema after breast cancer surgery. Lymphedema is a build-up of lymph fluid in arm tissue, which causes swelling. Edema is the medical term for swelling. Lymph fluid normally drains from body tissue through the lymph nodes and lymph channels. If some lymph nodes and channels are removed or damaged during surgery, lymph fluid doesn't drain properly and collects in the tissue near the surgery site. Lymphedema can cause other symptoms such as tingling, numbness, stiffness, and weakness. Still, those problems can happen after breast cancer surgery even without lymphedema.
There are reports of acute overdosage with tramadol. Signs and symptoms can
manifest by respiratory depression, sleepiness progressing to stupor or coma,
skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, seizures,
slow heart rate, low blood pressure (hypotension), cardiac arrest, and death.
Deaths due to overdose have been reported with abuse and misuse of tramadol.
Tramadol may interact with quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, amitriptyline, ketoconazole, erythromycin, SSRIs, MAOIs, triptans, linezolid, lithium, St. John's wort, carbamazepine, rifampin, and digoxin. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of tramadol in pregnant women. Tramadol should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Neonatal seizures, neonatal withdrawal syndrome, fetal death and stillbirth have been reported during post-marketing. Tramadol is not recommended for obstetrical preoperative medication or for post-delivery analgesia in nursing mothers because its safety in infants and newborns has not been studied.
Other drugs in the same class as tramadol include codeine hydrocodone (Zohydro ER), oxycodone (OxyContin, Roxicodone), methadone hydromorphone (Dilaudid, Exalgo), morphine (Avinza, Kadian, MSIR, MS Contin), fentanyl (Actiq, Duragesic). If you have questions about this drug talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or other medical professional.
REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information for tramadol.
This replacement procedure is a major surgical procedure that involves cutting of skin, tendon, and bone and removal of scar tissue, as well as resuturing of tendon back to bone. The pain from this surgery is managed by the anesthetic and by pain medications. Immediately after surgery, strong medications (such as morphine or Demerol) may be given by injection and by mouth as needed. Within a day or so, oral pain medications (such as hydrocodone or Tylenol with codeine) are usually sufficient. On the other hand, some individuals need surprisingly little pain medication after this procedure. In older individuals it is often safer to use relatively less pain medication.