Steroid psychosis mechanism

Corticosteroid myopathy presents as weakness and wasting of the proximal limb and girdle muscles and is generally reversible following cessation of therapy.

Corticosteroids inhibit intestinal calcium absorption and increase urinary calcium excretion leading to bone resorption and bone loss. Bone loss of 3% over one year has been demonstrated with prednisolone 10 mg per day. Postmenopausal females are particularly at risk for loss of bone density. Sixteen percent of elderly patients treated with corticosteroids for 5 years may experience vertebral compression fractures. One author reported measurable bone loss over two years in women on concomitant therapy with prednisolone mg per day and tamoxifen. [ Ref ]

Thyroid storm is a life-threatening condition of the hyperthyroid state. 26 It most commonly occurs in patients with Graves' disease but may also occur in those with multinodular goiter or toxic adenoma. 27 It is treated by correcting the hyperthyroidism and treating the precipitating events. 26 Correction of the hyperthyroid state involves using drugs such as propylthiouracil or methimazole (Tapazole), beta blockers or corticosteroids, which decrease the peripheral effects of thyroid hormone and the conversion of thyroxine (T 4 ) to the more potent triiodothyronine (T 3 ). 22 , 26 Dexamethasone can be used for that purpose, at a dosage of 2 mg intravenously every six hours, and can eventually can be switched to an oral dosage of 2 mg every six hours. 28

The most commonly used AAS in medicine are testosterone and its various esters (but most commonly testosterone undecanoate , testosterone enanthate , testosterone cypionate , and testosterone propionate ), [53] nandrolone esters (most commonly nandrolone decanoate and nandrolone phenylpropionate ), stanozolol , and metandienone (methandrostenolone). [1] Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone , oxandrolone , mesterolone , and oxymetholone , as well as drostanolone propionate , metenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone . [1] Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; androstanolone, stanolone) and its esters are also notable, although they are not widely used in medicine. [54] Boldenone undecylenate and trenbolone acetate are used in veterinary medicine . [1]

Additionally, the guidelines recommend that all patients receiving chronic glucocorticoids with an illness or while undergoing any procedure continue their normal daily glucocorticoid therapy. The authors caution that in patients with rheumatic disease, discontinuation of even low glucocorticoid doses may lead to a significant disease flare. Patients who receive 5 mg or less of prednisone daily do not require additional supplementation—regardless of whether they are undergoing a procedure or have an intercurrent illness. Patients undergoing superficial surgical procedures while less than an hour under local anesthesia (., routine dental work, skin biopsy, minor orthopedic surgery) require their normal daily glucocorticoid dose without additional supplementation.

Steroid psychosis mechanism

steroid psychosis mechanism

Additionally, the guidelines recommend that all patients receiving chronic glucocorticoids with an illness or while undergoing any procedure continue their normal daily glucocorticoid therapy. The authors caution that in patients with rheumatic disease, discontinuation of even low glucocorticoid doses may lead to a significant disease flare. Patients who receive 5 mg or less of prednisone daily do not require additional supplementation—regardless of whether they are undergoing a procedure or have an intercurrent illness. Patients undergoing superficial surgical procedures while less than an hour under local anesthesia (., routine dental work, skin biopsy, minor orthopedic surgery) require their normal daily glucocorticoid dose without additional supplementation.

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