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The indiscriminate use of the cumulative exposure metric (the product of intensity and duration of exposure) might bias reported associations between exposure to hazardous agents and cancer risk. To assess the independent effects of duration and intensity of exposure on cancer risk, we explored effect modification of the association of cumulative exposure and cancer risk by intensity of exposure. We applied a flexible excess odds ratio model that is linear in cumulative exposure but potentially nonlinear in intensity of exposure to 15 case-control studies of cigarette smoking and lung cancer (1985-2009). Our model accommodated modification of the excess odds ratio per pack-year of cigarette smoking by time since smoking cessation among former smokers. We observed negative effect modification of the association of pack-years of cigarette smoking and lung cancer by intensity of cigarette smoke for persons who smoked more than 20-30 cigarettes per day. Patterns of effect modification were similar across individual studies and across major lung cancer subtypes. We observed strong negative effect modification by time since smoking cessation. Application of our method in this example of cigarette smoking and lung cancer demonstrated that reducing a complex exposure history to a metric such as cumulative exposure is too restrictive.
In honour of the Questamation album, USS hosted their Let's Get Weird concert to a variety of artists at Toronto's Sound Academy on May 1, 2009.  Describing the evening, Human Kebab said, "It's our official hello to the world."  The band The Good Times, contest winners from Etobicoke , Ontario, played first, followed by 15-year-old rockers from the US, Crooked X . Blackie Jackett Jr's set was next featuring James Black and Rick Jackett from Finger Eleven . USS finished the night with singing, smoothies, and a volcano.