Oral 5-ASA is effective for mild to moderate active ulcerative colitis extending proximal to the sigmoid colon. 21 If oral 5-ASA is ineffective, the addition of topical 5-ASA can be more effective than oral treatment alone. 22 A short-term course of oral corticosteroids may be effective if the disease does not respond to combination 5-ASA therapy, or for patients in whom a more rapid response is desired. 23 Infliximab (Remicade), an intravenously administered monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor-α, is effective for corticosteroid-refractory disease. 24 A recent meta-analysis of studies of azathioprine (Imuran) for treatment of active ulcerative colitis showed no statistically significant effect. 25
Mucus in the stool occurs naturally. The part of the colon that produces the mucus in the large intestine is the inner epithelial . It is a jelly-like substance and used by the body to lubricate the large intestine to make passing the stools easier and cut down on friction. Sometimes the mucus may have air trapped and it becomes bubbly. The mucus is normally clear and usually not detectable. The concern comes in when it is white or yellow. The mucous layer in the intestine is what protects from ulcers and protects the body from bad bacteria working its way through the walls of the intestine into the body called leaky gut . Some doctors don’t believe leaky gut syndrome exists but there has been a lot of evidence including this fascinating study where the doctors and scientists took pictures of it happening in the colon. The mucous layer is bolstered by probiotics. One daily is important.
Other possible disease-associated genes are involved in the immune system, particularly in the maturation and function of immune cells called T cells . T cells identify foreign substances and defend the body against infection. Certain genetic variations may make some individuals more prone to an overactive immune response to the bacteria and other microbes in the intestines, which may cause the chronic inflammation that occurs in ulcerative colitis . Another possible explanation is that ulcerative colitis occurs when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the cells of the intestines, causing inflammation.