A total of twenty-eight studies were identified, with nine being conducted in SLE, five in lupus nephritis and the remaining fourteen being post hoc analyses of phase 3 trials in SLE. All biologic therapies trialed targeted B cells (rituximab, belimumab, tabalumab, epratuzumab, atacicept, ocrelizumab), except for abetimus sodium and abatacept. Only the three phase 3 trials of belimumab in SLE met their primary endpoints, although benefit in secondary endpoints and reduction in serological activity was often seen in the other studies. In particular, the meta-analysis ( Figure 1 ) showed that most therapies (belimumab IV and SC, tabalumab and epratuzumab) had a steroid sparing effect, compared to placebo (pooled relative risk ; 95% CI: , ). Therapies were generally well tolerated, however, three studies were terminated prematurely due to serious side effects, and another due to discontinuation of drug supply. Several ongoing phase 3 trials of B cell and non-B cell agents are currently underway.